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Great Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt – Predynastic Pharaohs

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Join me as we explore the Naswtw – Papyrus sedge rulers of Upper Egypt, and Bityaw – or bee rulers of Lower Egypt, approximately 8000 years ago, and learn of the Egypt of the Predynastic Pharaohs.




Breyer, F. A. (2002). Die schriftzeugnisse des pradynastischen konigsgrabes U-J in umm el-qaab: Versuch einer Neuinterpretation. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 88, 53. https://wp.me/p9bjGZ-jw

Fischer, H. G. (1963). Varia Aegyptiaca. Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, 2, 15. https://wp.me/p9bjGZ-jz

O’Brien, A. A. (1996). The Serekh as an aspect of the iconography of early kingship. Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, 33, 123. https://wp.me/p9bjGZ-jC

Hassan, F. A. (1988). The Predynastic of Egypt. Journal of World Prehistory, 2(2), 135–185. https://wp.me/p9bjGZ-jG

Leplongeon, A. (2017). Technological variability in the Late Palaeolithic lithic industries of the Egyptian Nile Valley: The case of the Silsilian and Afian industries [Online image]. PLOS ONE. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0188824

Kalyanaraman, S. (2013). Hieroglyphs on bone, ivory tags of Abydos probably describe goods and localities. Possible link to Indus Script cipher? Academia.edu. https://www.academia.edu/34518277/Hieroglyphs_on_bone_ivory_tags_of_Abydos_probably_describe_goods_and_localities_Possible_link_to_Indus_Script_cipher.

Peden, A. J., Darnell, J. C., & Darnell, D. (2004). Theban Desert Road Survey in the Egyptian Western Desert, vol. 1: Gebel Tjauti Rock Inscriptions 1-45 and Wadi el-Ḥol Rock Inscriptions 1-45. Journal of the American Oriental Society, 124(1), 139. https://doi.org/10.2307/4132174

Schäfer, H. (1902). Abhandlungen der Königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften aus dem Jahre 1902. Verlag Der Königlichen Akademie Der Wissenschaften. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/92790#page/8/mode/1up

Tassie, G., van Wetering, J., Hassan, F., & Calcoen, B. (2005, January). Corpus of Potmarks From The Protodynastic To Early Dynastic Cemetery At Kafr Hassan Dawood, Wadi Tumilat, East Delta, Egypt. Corpus of Potmarks From the Protodynastic To Early Dynastic Cemetery At Kafr Hassan Dawood, Wadi Tumilat, East Delta, Egypt. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/237503428_CORPUS_OF_POTMARKS_FROM_THE_PROTODYNASTIC_TO_EARLY_DYNASTIC_CEMETERY_AT_KAFR_HASSAN_DAWOOD_WADI_TUMILAT_EAST_DELTA_EGYPT.

Van den Brink, E. C. M. (2001). The Pottery-Incised Serekh-Signs of Dynasties 0-1 Part 11: Fragments and Additional Complete Vessels . Archeo-NiI, (11). https://archeonil.com/images/revue%202000%202003/AN2001-03-van%20den%20Brink.pdf

Vermeersch, P., Gijselings, G., & Paulissen, E. (1984). Discovery of the Nazlet Khater man, Upper Egypt. Journal of Human Evolution, 13(3), 281–286. https://wp.me/p9bjGZ-jJ

Wilkinson, T. A. H. (1995). A New King in the Western Desert. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 81, 205. https://www.reconstructingancientegypt.org/houseofbooks/documents/a-new-king-in-the-western-desert-by-toby-a-h-wilkinson/

Williams, B. (1988). Narmer and the Coptos Colossi. Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, 25, 35-59. https://wp.me/p9bjGZ-jR


El-Aref, N. (2015, January 18). 35,000-year-old skeleton to return to Egypt. http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/9/40/120634/Heritage/Ancient-Egypt/,yearold-skeleton-to-return-to-Egypt.aspx.

Kinnaer, J. (2014). Scorpion Macehead. Scorpion Macehead | The Ancient Egypt Site. http://www.ancient-egypt.org/history/early-dynastic-period/1st-dynasty/horus-narmer/narmer-artefacts/scorpion-macehead.html.

Kinnaer, J. (2014). Umm el-Qa’ab. Umm el-Qa’ab | The Ancient Egypt Site. http://www.ancient-egypt.org/monuments/abydos-sacred-centre-of/umm-el-qaab/index.html.

Briar, B. (2019, November 18). Prehistoric Egypt: Deciphering Egypt’s Timeline. The Great Courses Daily. https://www.thegreatcoursesdaily.com/prehistoric-egypt-deciphering-egypts-timeline/

Marc, É. (2021). Dagger from Gebel el-Arak. Work Dagger from Gebel el-Arak | Louvre Museum | Paris. https://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/dagger-gebel-el-arak.

Raffaele, F. (2002). The Dynasty 0. Dynasty 0 – Dynasty Zero. http://www.francescoraffaele.com/egypt/hesyra/dynasty0.htm.

Raffaele, F. (2002). Dynasty 00. “Dynasty 00”. http://www.francescoraffaele.com/egypt/hesyr Raffaele, F. (2002). Dynasty 00. “Dynasty 00”. http://www.francescoraffaele.com/egypt/hesyra/dynasty00.htm.

Starr, M. (2018). An Ancient Egyptian Village Just Found in The Nile Delta Predate by 2,500 Years. ScienceAlert. https://www.sciencealert.com/ancient-egypt-tell-el-samara-neolithic-village-5-000-bce-predate-pharaohs

University College, London. (2000). King Crocodile. https://www.ucl.ac.uk/museums-static/digitalegypt/chronology/kingcrocodile.html.

University College, London. (2000). Tarkhan tomb 1549 UC 16947. https://www.ucl.ac.uk/museums-static/digitalegypt/tarkhan/tarkhantomb1549/tarkhantomb1549uc16947.html

University College, London. (2000). Tarkhan Tomb 315 jar UC 16071. Tarkhan tomb 315, jar UC 16071. https://www.ucl.ac.uk/museums-static/digitalegypt/tarkhan/tarkhantomb315/tarkhantomb315uc16071.html

University College, London. (2000). Tarkhan tomb 414, seal impressions. https://www.ucl.ac.uk/museums-static/digitalegypt/tarkhan/tarkhantomb414/tarkhantomb414seals.html#crocodile.

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